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Q. hear a single long beep when turning on the pc & no display on the monitor, what might be the problem?
A. Your RAM could not be detected by the machine. Check weather there isn’t any loose connection or alignment problem with the ram. If every thing is right your ram is gone.
Q. hear a single long beep & three short beeps when turning on the pc & no display on the monitor, what might be the problem?
A. Your display section may in trouble. If you have display card on the mother board probably it has loose connection or is gone. If onboard display is there motherboard should be brought to service technician for repairs of display section.
Q. What is the Windows "Registry"?
The Windows Registry is a database where all the information about your computer is stored. Everything from colors, installed applications, or changes you make in Control Panel, are included in the Registry database.

It is possible to break Windows by changing the Registry. Any changes you make should be done with caution. If you take the simple step of making a backup copy of the Registry, you virtually eliminate the possibility of disaster.

The Registry is edited with a tool found in your Windows folder. That tool is the Registry Editor. It's called Regedit.exe and is included with Windows for the purpose of viewing and editing the Registry.
Q. Where can I find my BIOS version in Windows?
A. When Windows starts, the OS loads information about the main computer BIOS and video BIOS and stores the following information under the

• • SystemBiosDate
• • SystemBiosVersion
• • VideoBiosDate
• • VideoBiosVersion

This information appears in the registry for informational purposes only; changing these items' values has no effect on the system.
Q. In Windows, where are all the places to look for programs set to launch on startup?
A. The two easy ones are in your Windows Startup group, and in your Services list.

The Startup group can be found in your Programs list, under the Start menu. Most third-party programs that launch when Windows starts will be found there.

The next place to check is your Services (if you have a version of Windows in the NT family, like Win 2000 or XP.) You can find this list by going to your Start menu, then Programs > Administrative Tools > Services. Be careful when poking around in the Services list - many of these services are necessary for running your computer, so don't go stopping them unless you know exactly what they do.

Go to Start->Run and type msconfig
this lists all of the programs that are running on startup
Q. What is the maximum file size for Windows' NTFS?
A. Theoretically PCGUIDE says virtually no limit due to extensions.

As a general rule 4GB was initially the max, but each service pack and upgrade has increased that to some degree. Now with NTFS5 (Windows 2000/XP) There is talk of new systems with hundreds of terabytes. I still believe there is a practical limit as each cluster is only so many bytes ~4KB, and the you have up to 36 bits on an Pentium CPU to address them. 2^36 * 4KB = 2^48 bytes. every 2^10 bytes increases by 1K. so 10 * 4 = 40 ~ 1000: 1,000,000: 1,000,000,000: 1,000,000,000,000 Bytes then 2^8=256 or roughly 256 Trillion Bytes. 1,099,511,627,776 = 2^40 = 1 Terabyte. So somewhere around 256 Terabytes. The good news is with SATA and new RAID configurations, It will be a short time when this is a REAL value for a high end server.
Q. What is the maximum partition size for Windows' NTFS?
A. For partitions other than the boot/system, your original comment sums up the situation pretty well.

For Intel boxes there is an adittional limitation. This is caused by the BIOS on the motherboard. This uses Int13 to access the disk/partition it is to boot from. The Int13 data structures for disk geometry limit the max usable partition size to 7.8GB. Any larger than this and you'll probably get a 'disk not found' type message.

Once the boot code on the disk has loaded the NT OS via the NT Loader, the BIOS Int13 is no longer used and we get into Terrabyte territory
Q. Is it true that Windows ME still has legacy DOS code?
A. Yes, just like windows 98 and 95, the windows ME code is based on DOS. Most of the commands actually happen through the windows shell but behind it all, there is MS-DOS. Don't worry though, windows ME is the last os that will be based on the DOS code. (Oh, and if you haven't actually bought it, it's just a re-build of windows 98 with a few new features.)
Q. I have lost my Windows 98 installation key, how can I find it?
A. The installation key is stored in the Windows 98 registry and can be checked as follows:

1 Start the registry editor (regedit.exe)
2 Move to HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion
3 Double click the Product Key name and copy
4 Click OK
5 Close the registry editor
Q. How do I make a Win98 boot disk, remove windows 98 from my computer, and then re-install it?
A. A win98 boot diskette can be made by going to the control panel and selecting add/remove programs then select the Startup Disk TAB and the click on create disk. You must have a 1.44 MB formatted diskette with NO bad sectors. This will allow you to boot to a "DOS" prompt.
from the "A:" prompt type

format c: /q ;answer yes to are you sure?
md c:win98
copy D:win98 C:win98 ; where D: is your CD-ROM
cd win98

You will need the WIN98 or WIN98SE FOLDER from the Install CD and the 25 character registration code. I usually make a text file with the CD key and put it in the WIN98 directory on my hard drive.

WIN98 Directory on the Hard Drive? YES!
I copy the WIN98 directory to the hard drive and run the setup from the hard drive. Then I never have to look for the 98 CD when a program asks for it.
Q. Can you install Windows 98 SE on a PC that already has Windows ME installed on it?
A. NO!! and why would you want to????

If you reformat your drive, you can put whatever you want on it.
Note: Reformatting WILL DESTROY all data on your PC.!!!!!
Q. How much hard drive space does a standard installation of Windows XP use up?
A. Through experience, I've discovered that most xp installations, home and pro, only take about 1.5 GB. It really depends on the computer though.

Microsoft recommends a hard drive with 1 or more GB free. I think the 1.5 GB sounds fair because of all the "temporary" files MS copies to the Hard drive before the install. These files stay on the drive until the install is completed and then removed at the last boot of the install (the first XP boot).
Q. How can I set up XP to auto-logon when I startup?
A. Yes, you can. To set up an auto-login, all you have to do is not create a password and also only have one username. XP will load that account by default.
Q. How can I add Plug and Play (PnP) support for a parallel port in Windows XP and Windows 2000?
A. If your computer isn't detecting legacy devices (e.g., some early Zip drives) connected through the parallel port, you might want to enable PnP support for parallel ports. To enable PnP support, perform the following:

1. Start the System Control Panel applet (go to Start, Settings, Control Panel, then click System in Win2K or go to Start, Control Panel, then click System in XP).
2. Select the Hardware tab.
3. Click Device Manager.
4. Expand the Ports (COM & LPT) section.
5. Right-click the parallel port and select Properties.
6. Select the Port Settings tab.
7. Select the "Enable legacy Plug and Play detection" check box
8. Restart the computer if prompted.
Q. Why should I upgrade from Windows 2000 to Windows XP?
A. There really is no really good reason to do it. Windows 2000 and Windows XP are unbelievably similar in that they run the same performance wise and are equally stable. Windows Xp does have more features though. These include, Internet Games, Easier to Use Start Menu, and also CD burning integration. XP also includes the Luna scheme that makes Windows just look "pretty." (Thats the Blue windows and the green start button). Windows XP also doesn't include Java Virtual Machine which is used on many websites. Luckily, you can go to and download Sun Java. (Sun Java created Java so they know their stuff)

It's really up to you. If you want the features I've mentioned, then go for it. If you dont care about those small improvements, then dont. If you really want to know, I upgraded my Windows 2000 Pro to Windows XP Pro about a month ago. It doesn't matter to me which one I use.
Q. How do digital cameras work?
A. In contrast to a conventional film camera, in a digital camera the light is focused onto an image sensor called a CCD (charge coupled device). The CCD is a collection of light-sensitive photo sites that produce an electric charge when struck by light. These charges are converted into numbers that are stored in the memory (usually on a memory chip). From there, the whole image can be displayed, sent to a computer, or even printed directly on a printer.
Q. What resolution do I need for high quality pictures?
A. For 4 inch by 6 inch pictures, you need at least 0.9 mega pixels. For 5x7 prints, you need at least 1.3 mega pixels. For 8x10 prints, you need at least 3.0 mega pixels. For 8.5x11 prints, you need at least 3.5 mega pixels. For putting up pictures on web sites, a 2.0 mega pixel camera should be enough.
Q. How many pictures will fit in the memory?
A. The exact number depends on the size of the memory card (or other type of storage used), the camera's resolution, the compression quality setting, the exact type of camera, and even the type of pictures taken. For example, a 3 mega pixel camera might make 0.8 MB pictures at the highest JPEG quality setting, therefore fitting about 160 pictures on a 128 MB card.
Q. What is JPEG and TIFF?
A. Two most popular picture storage formats used by digital cameras are JPEG and TIFF. The JPEG format uses lossy compression (some data judged by the algorithm to be less important to the human viewer is discarded) to achieve small file sizes. The TIFF format uses lossless LZW compression so no information is lost, however the pictures are typically much larger. High-quality JPEG setting is preferable for most uses.
Q. What batteries are used in digital cameras?
A. The flash and the LCD display use a lot of battery power. For this reason most digital cameras need rechargeable batteries. Some cameras come with chargers. Many cameras that take rechargeable NiMH AA batteries can use regular alkaline batteries in an emergency.
Q. What are OLED displays?
A. OLED is a new type of display technology meant to replace LCD screens used to preview pictures. The major advantage of OLED is that they glow only when needed, using less battery power. They also don't need a layer of filters and shutters as do LCD screens, making them brighter when viewed from an angle. Their main current disadvantage is a shorter life span and degradation over time when used.
Q. Do digital cameras have better quality than film cameras?
A. Newer high-resolution digital cameras (6+ MP) approach and exceed the quality of the 35mm SLR film cameras. Price to quality ratio is still better for film cameras but the digital cameras offer many benefits such as instant previews, no cost to additional photos, computer photo editing, or private printing that film cameras cannot match.
Q. How to move pictures from the camera to the computer?
A. Most cameras use the USB 1.1 standard cable for uploading the pictures. Some support USB 2.0 or FireWire (IEEE-1394) for faster uploads. Of course, cameras that can save pictures on CDs don't need a cable.
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